Understanding joinery and construction further enhances the connoisseurship of Chinese hardwood furniture. To the aesthetically inclined observer, the study of joinery may seem at first an unusual approach, yet the techniques employed play an important part in the overall effect. The animation and harmony experienced when viewing masterpieces is often the result of a unity that lies beneath the surfacemembers are not only connected together to form a functional object, but also manifest integrated conceptualization. Techniques of wood joinery were born from an ancient technological culture and developed through continuous evolution of timber architectural systems. Further heights of sophistication and refinement were reached during the Ming and early Qing dynasties along with the manufacture of hardwood furniture.